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What are intermediates and what do they do?

What are intermediates

What are intermediates and what do they do?

 

An intermediate is a molecule that is formed from two or more reactants and then reacts further to give products. Most chemical reactions require more than one step, and an intermediate is the product of each step, except for the last one, after which the final products are produced. Intermediates very rarely remain in the product mixture due to the short time that they exist. They are seldom isolated, and so usually end up reacting with other chemicals in the reaction to eventually produce the final products. An example of a chemical reaction would be A+B = C+D. In reality, the reaction is more likely to be something like this; A+B = X*, X* = C+D, in which X* is the intermediate. There can be a high number of intermediates in every reaction, and they’re sometimes difficult to identify due to how short-lived they are.

 

Intermediates are distinguishable from molecular vibrations, which are merely transitions, though they have similar lifetimes. Intermediates are short-lived and highly reactive, which is why they are usually in very low quantities in reaction mixtures. Of course, when describing intermediates, we need to take into account the reaction in which they are present. A short-lived species in one reaction might actually be considered stable in another. Intermediates are relatively short-lived compare to the other chemicals in the reactions. They often come in the forms of free radicals or unstable ions and sometimes must be produced at a very high temperature or pressure due to their high reactivity. In certain reactions, multiple steps are performed in one batch. Sometimes, it is unnecessary to isolate an intermediate for further reactions – other times, it’s impossible due to their high reactivity with other chemicals in the reaction mixture. It’s hard to isolate intermediates when their lifespan is so comparatively short. An example is the esterification of a diol, where a monoester is first produced, which then reacts to from a dioester.

 

An example of an intermediate in the chemical industry is cumene. The term intermediate in the chemical industry usually means a product of a reaction that is only beneficial when used as a precursor chemical for another industry. Cumene is made from benzene and propylene, and is then used to produce acetone. Cumene, without additional reactions, has very little value and no real use, which makes it an intermediate instead of a useful chemical product.

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Bulk Chemicals vs Fine Chemicals

bulk chemicals in storage

Bulk Chemicals VS Fine Chemicals

 

The chemical industry can be simplified into two main parts – fine chemicals, which are pure and complex, and bulk chemicals, which are made in huge quantities. Fine chemicals provide the means for things like drugs, fragrances, and additives in food. Some examples of bulk chemicals are ammonia, sulfuric acid, and sodium hydroxide, which are all made at large chemical plants via a variety of different processes. There are significant differences between the two front runners of the chemical industry.

 

Bulk chemicals

 

These are chemicals that are made on a very large scale in order to satisfy global markets – which is why they are sometimes referred to as commodity chemicals. Organic chemicals are produced by organic synthesis, which has many different steps and processes involved. Both inorganic and organic bulk chemicals are manufactured in continuous process chemicals plants as opposed to batch manufacturing chemical plants (which is how fine chemicals are produced). In the UK specifically, there are 4 main chemical plants that produced most of the country’s bulk chemicals – near the River Mersey, on the East coast of Yorkshire, in Grangemouth and in Teesside. The basic manufacturing goal of bulk chemical plants is to produce bulk chemicals on a large enough scale that costs are kept as low as possible, to make the maximum amount of profit. Some notable examples of these chemicals acetone, acrylic acid, biodiesel, castor oil, glycerine, and white spirit.

 

Fine chemicals

 

Fine chemicals, as opposed to bulk chemicals, can only be manufactured in small, limited quantities in plants by batch or biotechnological manufacturing processes. There are, however, many small and complicated steps in the making of fine chemicals – like chemical synthesis, biotechnology, extraction, and hydrolysis. These chemicals were conceived in the 1970s, and have since become an important part of the chemical industry in the UK. The products, while extremely useful, usually have to be combined with other chemicals and substances in order to reach their full potential. Generally, they provide the building blocks for many different products that no doubt you use every single day. Some examples of these include pharmaceuticals, biocides, fragrances, additives, and pigments. Fine chemicals, to sum up, have to be combined with other substances to create these products. They are much more expensive to produce than bulk chemicals, due to their complex and changing the chemistry. Both bulk chemicals and fine chemicals are vital to the chemical industry, and provide us with everyday items and products that we don’t necessarily notice, but would definitely miss.

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storing chemicals safely

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Storing Chemicals Safely

Knowing the correct practices in storing chemicals safely will help to avoid potentially dangerous or even fatal incidents in the laboratory or workplace. Chemicals, especially those that are hazardous when in contact with skin or eyes, or when paired with another chemical, should be labelled clearly, kept in small quantities and only stored with compatible chemicals that offer low risk of any reaction.

Labelling

Labelling is an crucial aspect of storing chemicals safely – all chemicals must be labelled clearly with both the name and chemical symbol, and any hazard warnings that apply (for example – corrosive, flammable, toxic, etc).

Compatibility

It is essential when storing chemicals safely that their compatibility with one another is considered. A chemical may be completely stable alone, or when paired with a compatible chemical – however, it may react with a different chemical and cause a danger to those around it.

Quantity

Keeping chemicals in large quantities is unadvisable. Should an accident occur, there should be limited amounts of hazardous material that could harm workers or lab occupants – if there is a large quantity, there is a higher risk of injury.

Stock control

Keeping a close eye on your stock is essential. Storing chemicals safely involves disposing of time sensitive chemicals that expire, and disposing of surplus or unwanted stock that is simply taking up too much space. Keeping an up to date record of the stock will ensure that, should an accident occur, you have adequate knowledge on how to handle it.

Containers

Storing chemicals safely can come down to the container in which they are kept. Breakable containers should be avoided where possible – if their use is unavoidable, then they should be stored on a low shelf, below shoulder height. Storing plastic containers above shoulder height is fine, as long as there is sufficient access without threatening the integrity of the rest of the chemicals nearby.

Shelving

Shelving should be kept as low down as possible, so that workers do not need to use benches or lab chairs in order to reach chemicals. Doing so can increase the risk of falling, and potential damage to containers. Chemicals which are used less frequently should be kept on higher/more inconvenient to reach shelves.

Clutter

In order to store chemicals as safely as possible, clutter should be kept to a minimum. Not only does this allow for easier retrieval or locating of chemicals, it avoids any confusion in the workplace. Keeping mess to a minimum will also decrease the risk of trips.

 

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production of fine chemicals

 production of fine chemicals

 

Technologies involved in the production of fine chemicals

Fine chemicals are rapidly becoming one of the front runners of the chemical industry in the UK – however, production can be difficult, as they can only be produced in limited quantities by multiple different steps, in batches. The production of fine chemicals involves a number of different technologies – the global production value of fine chemicals is close to $85 billion. Fine chemicals are single, pure chemicals substances which are produced in multi-purpose plants. They are produced in low quantities but have a relatively high cost. They are sold on specifications and have very specific applications.

 

Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis can either take place from petrochemical starting chemicals or natural product extracts. Petrochemicals are chemicals products derived from petroleum or obtained from fossil fuels such as coal. Some well-known examples of petrochemicals include ethylene, benzene and propylene. Natural product extracts can include a wide range of different products, usually found in plants.

 

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a prominent technology in the production of fine chemicals. Fine chemical production involves three different areas of biotechnology – biocatalysis, biosynthesis and cell culture technology. Biocatalysis involves natural catalysts performing a chemical transformation on specifically organic compounds. Biosynthesis is a complex process in which substrates are converted into more complex products.

 

Extraction

During the production of fine chemicals, extraction of different products from animals or plants may be required. Isolation and purification will take place during this, usually for extraction of alkaloids, antibacterials and steroids. Natural products from organisms provide many fine chemical extracts needed for applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Animal and plant by-products are a rich source of such materials, such as proteins, hormones and polysaccharides.

 

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis of proteins takes place during the production of fine chemicals, in which proteins are broken down into their constituent amino acids. This is a fairly simple process, involving heat being applied to the protein with the presence of a catalyst for a long period of time. The reaction isolates the amino acids for use in the production of fine chemicals.

 

Despite these technologies being very important, mastering them does not give any specific competitive advantage. The production of fine chemicals can be carried out in multipurpose plants. Reaction-specific equipment, however, is readily available on the market, so utilising these technologies is not difficult, and could possibly save you some time overall. The installation of such equipment is relatively simple too.  

 

 

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Our featured products and their uses

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Some featured products and their uses

 

Tyramine Hydrochloride

 

– Tyramine its self is contained in many types of meat which have been aged, pickled, fermented, smoked or marinated. Tyramine is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyramine acts as a catecholamine releasing agent. It is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, therefore, resulting in only non-psychoactive peripheral sympathomimetic effects following ingestion. A hypertensive crisis can result, however, from ingestion of tyramine-rich foods in conjunction with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The appearance of this chemical is pale white to pale pink crystalline powder.

 

2-Methoxyphenothiazine

 

– Phenothiazine is an organic compound that has the formula S(C6H4)2NH and is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds. It is used in chemical manufacturing as a stabiliser or inhibitor. It was used in the mid-20th century as an insecticide and anthelminthic for livestock and humans but was superseded by other compounds. The earliest derivative, methylene blue, was one of the first antimalarial drugs, and as of 2015 derivatives are under investigation as possible anti-infective drugs. It is a prototypical pharmaceutical lead structure in modern medicinal chemistry.

 

1,3-Dichloroacetone

 

– is an off-white to pale brown crystalline solid with a melting point of 38-45 degrees. It is prepped by the oxidation of dichlorohydrin with sodium dichromate. The health hazards and risks for this chemical are that it is flammable – 2nd degree and reactive – 1st degree. It may also be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. A fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases.  When heated to decomposition, it emits highly toxic fumes of chlorides. This material may burn but does not ignite readily.

 

Boron Trichloride

 

– Dimethyloctylamine Complex – this compounds formula is C10H23BCl3N and has a melting point of 25-28 degrees Celsius. Its appearance is colourless, light yellow or brown crystalline solid. This chemical is one of the numerous organo-metallic compounds for uses requiring non-aqueous solubilities such as recent solar energy and water treatment applications. Similar results can sometimes also be achieved with nanoparticles and by thin film deposition. Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. It is a low-abundance element in the solar system and in the earth’s crust. Boron is concentrated on earth by the water solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals. The largest known boron deposits are in turkey, the largest producer of boron materials.

 

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The History of Fine Chemicals UK

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The history of fine chemicals UK

 

Fine chemicals are defined as small-batch, high-value products that are useful based on their molecular properties, and are purchased for specific functions like perfumes and pharmaceuticals. Due to their properties, they have a very interesting history and origins story – fine chemicals date back to the late 1800s when modern pharmaceuticals were beginning to develop. Initially, the chemicals industry consisted of explosives and dyestuffs, and pharmaceuticals were not something that was regularly thought about – obviously, since then, the pharmaceuticals industry has grown exponentially, and therefore so has the demand for fine chemicals UK.

 

During World War I, a monumental amount of change in the chemicals UK sector was sparked, and there was a sharp spike in demand for chemicals all over the globe. There was an intense period of growth and innovation, and many new chemicals were being made and discovered. The UK put its effort into state-run companies, and the modern fine chemicals UK industry was born.

 

World War II saw a huge boom in research, with many chemicals companies opening new research centres and laboratories, for research into chemicals and drug production. After the war, the basis of the modern pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical industry was set, and the industry was eventually split into the sectors of commodity chemicals, speciality chemicals and fine chemicals. The fine chemicals UK sector was recognised at this point in time mainly due to the success of the histamine receptor antagonists Tagamet and Zantac, which created a widespread demand for organic chemicals used in the manufacturing.

The beginning of the fine chemicals UK industry is usually accredited to a supply contract between Smith Kline & French, and Glaxo, both popular chemical companies (which many will now know as GlaxoSmithKline) that signed the document in the 1970s. Following this contract, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals grew in complexity and demand. This introduced a different mode of production by using multipurpose plants.

 

The introduction of biopharmaceuticals created, even more, demand for fine chemicals UK, and fine chemicals were used more and more as the active ingredients of both drugs and agrochemicals.

 

In more recent history, fine chemicals UK have been viewed as the glamour sector of the chemical industry – however, they have a lot more potential that just the production of soap or paint. The fine chemicals of today are high tech materials, made in clean batch processes, which are the building blocks of some cancer drugs.

 

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Pharmaceutical Chemicals

Pharmaceutical chemicals offered by Syntor Fine Chemicals

We all use pharmaceutical chemicals in one way or another. For instance, they are contained in the detergents we use and the medicine we take. It’s therefore important to identify a reliable supplier of quality chemicals to use in the making of such products. With numerous suppliers promising to offer unmatched services, however in such important situations it’s important to ensure the company that you use is recommended and trusted as one of the best so look no further than Syntor Fine Chemicals. Here we have the most advanced equipment and machinery to ensure that you get the best quality chemicals for your agricultural or pharmaceutical use. You are sure to be delighted by our unparalleled services.

About our pharmaceutical chemicals

Whether you require fine chemicals, agrochemicals or pharmaceutical intermediates, Syntor can provide what you are looking for. We manufacture all our products within top of the range laboratories that are up to standard. We also ensure that high hygiene standards are maintained in full. Excellent pharmaceutical chemicals can only be made in the right set of regulated conditions. For instance, ingredients have to be put in their precise amounts along with levels of temperature and humidity also have to be accurate. Most firms try to speed up the process, producing substandard chemicals in the process. However, our in-house chemists ensure that all the right manufacturing conditions are met.

Purchasing our top-grade pharmaceutical chemicals allows you to have extremely potent products at your disposal. One of our main objectives is to leave a positive impact in our client’s lives. We strive to do this by offering the most outstanding pharmaceutical chemicals in existence. Being so experienced in this industry, we’ve earned excellent reputation among many customers. We’ve therefore maintained a high level of excellence in the way we offer our services. Therefore, the next time you’re looking for a dependable supplier to provide you incredible pharmaceutical chemicals, contact Syntor Fine Chemicals and we are sure to be able to help.

pharmaceutical chemicals

Each of our chemicals has a CAS number that is used for identification purposes. If you want to purchase a particular chemical, enter its specific CAS number on the search function located within our site. For instance, you can get Methacryloyl Chloride by searching its CAS number, 920-46-7. We also have Bis(2-Chliriethyl) Amine HCL which has a CAS number of 821-48-7. We have a vast assortment of pharmaceutical chemicals at our stores. In addition, we package and distribute our products to different parts of the globe. Our regional dealers assist us to market and distribute our remarkable chemicals in different countries.

In addition to offering quality pharmaceutical chemicals to our wide customer base, we also offer superb intermediate products on a remarkable contract basis. This deal is for those clients seeking to outsource production. This partnership involves delivering distinct products and chemicals which might not be included in our official product list. Contact us today to discuss your requirements.

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Syntor Fine Chemicals – What are Fine Chemicals?

What Are Fine Chemicals?

Fine chemicals are single, pure and complex chemicals that are only produced in small amounts by multipurpose plants.

Most manufacturing firms produce chemicals in bulk using standardized reactions. Fine chemicals on the other hand are produced by a limited number of companies.

These chemicals are used for special applications by manufacturing firms that make the following products: Pharmaceuticals, paint, petrochemical, adhesives and agricultural products.

Types of fine chemicals

They are divided into three main forms: biocides, active pharmaceutical ingredients and specialty chemicals. The chemicals are never sold in their natural state. They added substances such as uncreative pigments, excipients and solvents before.

  • Active pharmaceutical ingredients – They are then produced in varying doses as medical drugs.
  • Biocides are chemicals used to kill weeds and pests. They include pesticides and herbicides.
  • Specialty chemicals are used in various processes such as making ceramics, additive in plastics, glass and disinfectants or antioxidants.

 

Challenges in production

  • Unlike the manufacture of bulk chemicals, fine chemicals are hard to manufacture because they require specialized knowledge. Their chemistry also changes often thus there are always new developments that lead to a change in raw materials and even the processes required for their manufacture.
  • Due to their changing chemistry there are so many varieties in the market. This aspect also means that the manufacturing firms that produce them need to always be flexible. The changes in the chemistry are precipitated by the release of new drugs into the market whose formulation has changed.
  • Production of fine chemicals leads to release of high amounts of waste. This means that the manufacturing companies not only incur costs in manufacturing but also in waste disposal. This increases production cost.
  • Costs associated with training and getting the right people to manufacture the chemicals.
  • Government compliance regulations in regard to their manufacture.
  • Investments in safety protocols since most of the chemicals are produced from inflammable solvents.

Solutions to the challenges

Most manufacturing firms avoid having in-house fine chemical processing equipment because of the costs associated with production. They buy the fine chemicals from the manufacturers then use them to manufacture various commodities.

Choice of the right manufacturer

However, every manufacturing firm utilizes different chemicals thus there is a need to be able to get the right supplier.

  • One of the key considerations in getting the right supplier is the reputation of the supplier. The reputation of the supplier determines whether the supplier can be trusted to provide the right chemical processes. Customer testimonials and customer service interaction can be used to determine their reputation.
  • The longevity of the business – entrusting your chemical processing needs to a new entrant in the market can be detrimental to an organization. The problem is that the new entrant has no proven track record. The first thing every manufacturing firm needs to consider is the manufacturing capability of the outsourcing entity. It is good to know whether the entity has the right centrifuges, reactors and even storage capabilities.

 

If you would like to order any fine chemicals from us please click here for more details

 

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Manufacturers of Chloroalkylamines

The best manufacturers of Chloroalkylamines

The search for quality industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals can be quite a drag. Few companies around the world produce these chemicals. However, Syntor Fine Chemicals is here to obviate all your worries. Here, we offer an extended range of custom and toll manufacturing options employing our exceptional commercial production facilities in China and India. We also produce and supply a variety of Fine Chemicals and Intermediates. Most of our chemical products are usually stocked and sanctioned within the UK for legal distribution. These products include Chloroalkylamines, Cyclopropyl derivatives, Acid Chlorides and Friedel Crafts derivatives. They are normally used for a wide range of applications.
Our incredible products
Chloroalkylamines exist in varying forms, all of which are available at Syntor Fine Chemicals. They include Diethylaminoethyl Chloride Hydrochloride whose CAS number is 869-24-9, Diisopropylaminoethyl Chloride Hydrochloride which has a CAS number of 4261-68-1 and N, N-(Dimethylamino)ethyl Chloride Hydrochloride with CAS number 4584-46-7. Apart from these distinct Chloroalkylamines, we also produce Chloroethylamine HCL (CAS number 870-24-6) and N, N-Dimethylaminoisopropyl Chloride Hydrochloride (CAS number 4584-49-0). You can’t get these unique products anywhere else apart from Syntor Fine Chemicals. We manufacture these Chloroalkylamines in the most hygienic environments to prevent contamination. You therefore get the purest chemicals for industrial, agrochemical or pharmaceutical use.
At Syntor, our main aim is to provide unique service that’s tailored for all our diverse customers. We understand your persistent need for high-quality products and chemicals to aid in the synthesis of drugs, fertilizers and other essentials. Therefore, we’ve consistently continued forging lasting relationships with all our customers. In addition, we provide cost-effective solutions in a transparent manner. We highly utilize our multi-purpose production and exquisite technical expertise to offer you a remarkable range of services which include toll manufacturing and process development. Trust us to provide the best Chloroalkylamines, Acid chlorides and Cyclopropyl derivatives in town.
All our products are thoroughly tested and approved by all the appropriate bodies to ensure that they pass all the required quality checks. They are then dispatched straight from our main COMAH-registered facilities in the UK to other parts of the globe. We maintain the highest standards of quality and excellence during the production and distribution of our products. All our esteemed customers talk very highly of our unparalleled products and services. We have sales agents throughout the globe to ensure you get our products wherever you are.
We have numerous European agents in countries such as France, Germany, Spain, Austria and Switzerland. Our agents in North and South America are located in countries like the USA and Brazil. We also have Asian agents located in South Korea, India and Japan. You can get the official contacts of each agent from our website: www.syntor.co.uk. Our experience personnel and representatives will gladly be at your beck and call. Alternatively, you can call our main office in Cheshire through +44(0)-1928-579865. Trust us to deliver the best Chloroalkylamines. We strive to deliver an exquisite service that upholds all the health, safety and environmental standards.

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Chemicals from Syntor

Syntor specialises in the development and supply of Fine Chemicals, Intermediates and Speciality Chemicals to a range of sectors including the Pharmaceutical, Agrochemical, Aroma, Polymer, and Electronic industries. They have a wide range of chemicals and here we are looking at just a few they have available.

 

(2S-cis)-(+)-2,3-Dihydro-3-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,5-benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one 
42399-49-5

CAS No: 42399-49-5

Specifications

Parameter Value
Appearance White to off-white powder
Assay 98.0% minimum
Melting Point 202-207°C
Water Content 0.5% maximum

Synonyms: Cis hydroxy lactam

 

1-(3-Chloropropyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine hydrochloride  
52605-52-4

CAS No: 52605-52-4

Specifications

Parameter Value
Appearance White to off-white crystalline solid
Assay 97.0% minimum
Melting point range 199-203°C

 

1-Bromo-4-fluorobenzene

4-Bromo-fluorobenzene
CAS No: 460-00-4

Specifications

Parameter Value
Appearance Clear colourless liquid
Assay 99.0% minimum
Impurities 0.5% maximum
Water content 0.1% maximum

Synonyms: 1-Fluoro-4-bromobenzene, 4-Fluoro-1-bromobenzene

 

Boc Glycine

N-Tert-Butoxycarbonylglycine
CAS No: 4530-20-5

Specifications

Parameter Value
Appearance White to off-white crystalline solid
Assay 99.0% minimum
Melting point range 87-89°C
Water content 0.5% maximum
Synonyms: N-tert-Butoxycarbonylglycine, 2-{[(tert-Butoxy)-carbonyl]-amino}-acetic acid

Syntor have a wide range of chemicals available for you. They can offer a range of standard products, and also work closely with customers who have outsourcing projects, and custom manufacturing processes. Utilising our facilities in India and China, we seek to provide cost effective manufacturing options to internationally recognised standards.

Their main products groups are:

  • Chloroalkylamines
  • Acid chlorides
  • Friedel Crafts derivatives
  • Cyclopropyl derivatives

 

Click here to see Syntor’s full list of chemicals they have available. Contact Syntor today to place your order or to find our more information.

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